ipp CONCEpt index



IPP introduces many new concepts to physics, which become the threads out of which a new fabric of physics is woven. In the weaving process, each these various conceptual threads is used repeatedly, so it becomes convenient for the author to capsule the meaning of each new concept in a single word, or phrase, in order to make the weaving process more succinct.

Although I have defined each of these new terms as I have introduced them in the text, you may not recall these definitions clearly when you come across them in later chapters. I repeat these definitions, here, (often rephrased) so that you may refresh any hazy recollections.

Note: Page numbers below each concept are places where it is discussed.


"Healing" the lattice of defects through rotational exchanges of ECEs between like-type defects of opposite-charge.


Precisely the same distortion pattern as its matter equivalent, except that corresponding ECEs in this infinite pattern are of opposite polarity.


The inevitable production of an oppositely-directed kaon, whenever a particle-creation experiment results in a sigma resonance, or two kaons for a xi resonance, or three kaons for an omega resonance. IPP is able to show that these kaon separations are essential in producing the relative movement among the sub-component defect-pairs of the precursor cluster necessary to form these hyperon structures.


a face-diagonal line through the center of a c-void's zone of contraction.
2-3, 7-11


A face-diagonal line through the center of a c-void's zone of expansion.
2-3, 7-11


Black-body radiation of 2.7K, coming to earth uniformly from all directions, currently ascribed to big-bang photons being cooled by 15 billion years of universal expansion. IPP says this is due to the emission of energy when opposite-polarity "thermal" voids join to form a void-pair.
1-20, 8-6,7


(see Hadrons)


A crystalline form of the space lattice in which each polarity of ECE is centered in a lattice cube of opposite-polarity ECEs. IPP's concept of a black hole.
1-3, 4-17, 7-6, 8-2


Mass-canceling interaction between two defect-pairs, aligned so that zones of contraction distortion of one are superimposed upon zones of expansion of the other, and vice-versa.
2-15, 3-1, 3-18

Paraxial bond: a mass-canceling arrangement of two like-slant defect-pairs spaced apart along a common pairing axis.

Double-paraxial bond: mass-canceling arrangement of three like-slant defect-pairs spaced apart along a common pairing axis.

Diagonal bond: a mass-canceling arrangement of two opposite-slant defect-pairs, whose bonding c-voids usually lie in common cardinal planes, in face-diagonal directions from each other.

Ring-diagonal bond: one-half the mass-deficit of the four equally-spaced diagonal bonds that form in face-diagonal directions between four like-spaced defect-pairs in a square arrangement.


A point in the dynamic process of defect translocations when the translocating defect passes through the center of the "centered distortion pattern" (a mental construct of no actual validity). For example, in lepton particle (void, replacement, excess) hovering, the centered phase is that moment when the defect (or the center of two half-defects, in the case of the excess) passes through the center of a supercube.


The exchange of + void for - void between opposite charge c-voids that lie in face-diagonal directions from each other. This occurs during the translocations of the two orthogonal defect-pairs of which these two c-voids are components.

Inter-nucleon charge-exchanges: charge-exchanges between diagonally-adjacent protons and neutrons, which convert each to the other. They typically move protons toward the nuclide perimeter, neutrons toward the nuclide center.
3-2, 10, 17

Offset-type charge-exchanges: ones in which the participating defect-pairs lie in adjacent cardinal planes of the lattice. Usually, these are simultaneous dual charge-exchanges in which both defect-pairs move into each others' planes.

Mental picture of: movement of two oppositely-directed adjacent face-diagonal "chains" of opposite-polarity ECEs which reverse the charges of c-voids of two orthogonal defect-pairs.


A way of visualizing the fields induced in the space lattice by the presence of a defect, or defect-cluster. One visualizes spherical shells with either + ECEs or - ECEs embedded in them, shrunken, or expanded, by an amount inversely proportional to the radius squared, and directly proportional to the amount of central displacement effects developed by the defect, or cluster.


A pattern formed when a void "collapses" under the influence of undedicated shrinkage; a component of a defect-pair.
1-22; 2-2; 7-11

Precursor void: the site which the uncollapsed void occupied prior to its collapse.

Translocating ECE: the ECE which moves to the center of the c-void's pattern (i.e. to the center of a lattice-face); it was one of twelve ECEs which lie one face-diagonal from the precursor void.

Plane of collapse: the cardinal plane common to both the precursor void and the translocating ECE; it is a plane of symmetry of the c-void's distortion pattern. A tab lies in the plane of collapse.


A detectable lattice-density oscillation produced by the hemispherical shrinkage component of a defect's bound ellipsoidal hovering oscillator.
1-25, 26


Decay is an induced phenomenon in IPP. We avoid the discomfort of "spontaneous" decay by attributing decay to interactions with three newly perceived destabilizing agents in space, namely, lattice void-defects with 1/2e charge (muon-neutrinos), opposite-polarity void-pairs (electron- neutrinos), and, for hadron resonances, passage through the grain-boundaries between randomly-oriented crystals of polycrystalline space. Also, by providing specific defect structures for each resonance, and for its decay products, the Theory permits one to understand the relationships between particle structures and particle lifetimes.

Particle annihilations and particle creations can be visualized in considerable detail. However, much remains to be understood about the process by which the annihilating particles bring lattice shrinkage to the local scene. Also, how this shrinkage transmogrifies into these new defect types, and into the momentum necessary for their separation.


Two c-voids joined together along a common pairing axis, by mutual cancellation of most of their expansion/contraction distortion. Defect-pairs have + e, 0, or - e charge; the component c-voids can have a variety of spacings, from 5 to 15; neutral defect-pairs will have even spacings, charged defect-pairs odd spacings. Defect-pairs are matter/anti-matter neutral.
2-2, 3

Mass of defect-pairs vs. defect-spacings: pages 2-12,13


A defect moves by a sequence of exchanges, each of which involves changing places with an ECE spaced one lattice face-diagonal away. These exchanges are affected by bound lattice density oscillations, and can be in any of twelve lattice face-diagonal directions from the original defect site.
1-21, 22


Phenomena capable of inducing particle decay. These agents are primarily voids & void-pairs (muon & electron-neutrinos), which are assumed to be at least a billion times more abundant in space than protons or electrons. Other important destabilizing agents are energetic photons, strong electrostatic fields due to proximity of (or collision with) other particles, and the passage of hadron structures through grain-boundaries.


Elemental charge entities; incompressible spherical particles of identically-opposite properties, of approximately 0.18 fermi diameter, and with charge effect equal to 1/2e, which form the solid space crystals of an infinitely-extending polycrystalline lattice.


Interaction between a nuclide proton and an orbital electron to produce a neutron plus a nue.


IPP permits us to view an electron, a -- replacement defect, as a composite defect (a - excess filling a - void). In the presence of sufficient undedicated shrinkage, these two defects can assume independent identity, to permit charge-exchanges between the electron's - void and a + c-void of the proton to effect the above conversion.


The amount of available undedicated shrinkage often determines which pathway a creation or decay event takes. For example, to collapse opposite-charge muons (+ excess & - excess) into a neutral pion (a 6 defect-pair) requires >31 MeV of undedicated shrinkage (136 - 2*105/2 = 31), whereas forming this same defect-pair out an electron-neutrino (opposite-polarity voids) would require >136 MeV. If both kinds of raw materials are present, and the amount of undedicated shrinkage is <136 MeV, we say that the first possibility is energetically favored.>



A point-centered oscillation in the density of ECEs; usually referred to as a lattice-density oscillation.
See Introductory Tutorial


Protons and neutrons interchanging their locations in a nuclear structure by inter-nucleon charge-exchanges, rather than by breaking bonds, and re-bonding in new locations. IPP uses this concept, along with the concept of grain-boundary disruptions, to explain how a random mix of x-p's and y-n's always produces an identical ground-state structure.
3-17; 4-1, 23, 31


The interaction between defect-pairs in a cluster affects their defect-spacings, which usually increase with increasing cluster complexity. Defect-spacings also increase in the presence of excess undedicated shrinkage. Thus, it often occurs that clusters form with defect-spacing in excess of the equilibrium spacings of a particular cluster geometry. This discrepancy usually leads to fracture of the cluster into smaller clusters, which can then utilize the excess shrinkage as separation momentum, since these smaller cluster will have even smaller equilibrium defect-spacings.
2-10; 6-16


A bipolar polycrystalline solid completely filling the cosmos.

Need for: pages 1-2

Properties of: page 1-3, 4

Creation scenario for: page 8-2, 3


A lattice defect formed by "wedging" an ECE into the interior of a lattice supercube.

- excess: A muon, or -
+ excess: An antimuon, or +


Radial variations in the time-averaged ECE densities and displacements surrounding any point in space.

Gravitational field: lattice skew resulting from ellipsoidal distortion of ECEs induced by lattice shrinkage.

Electrostatic field: inwardly and outwardly displaced concentric shells of + ECEs & - ECEs produced by a charged defect center.

Strong-force field: residual expansion/ contraction distortion surrounding paired c-void defects. This distortion exists because paired c-voids are spaced apart, and, thus, can't completely cancel each other's distortions. Hence, it will be true that bonds between spaced defect-pairs also leave residues of uncanceled distortion, so multiple bonds can exist between clustered defect-pairs. This capability permits nucleons to bond into multiplane structures.


The interaction between a field and a defect's hovering oscillator, which alters the oscillator's ellipticity, thereby changing its (and the defect's) velocity through space.

Gravitational force: alteration in the ellipticity of a defect's hovering oscillator through its interaction with radial asymmetry in the integrated density of ECEs surrounding it. The gravitational force is so weak because 1) ECEs are (presumed to be) incompressible, and very hard to distort, and 2) the ellipsoidal ECE distortions due to shrinkage result in circumferential compression and radial contraction of the lattice surrounding a defect. These contribute oppositely-directed hemispherical shrinkage components to the hovering oscillator, which almost completely cancel each other.

Electromagnetic force: alteration in the ellipticity of a defect's hovering oscillator through its interaction with radial asymmetry in the displacements of + ECEs & - ECEs surrounding it.

Strong-force: cancellation of residual expansion/ contraction distortion surrounding properly-oriented defect-pairs of opposite slant, resulting in release of undedicated shrinkage.

Weak-force: A concept that QCD uses to explain lepton-producing decays. Not needed in IPP, since IPP explains these decays as being induced by interaction with destabilizing agents.
1-30, 4-26, 27




Transient half-formed electron/positron pairs which appear and disappear in the central region of an energetic lattice-density oscillation, as its central ECE density waxes and wanes. The numbers of ghost-pairs is presumed to scale with oscillator energy, and, thus, accounts for relativistic mass increases.


Transition zones in polycrystalline space between ether-lattice crystals of different cardinal orientations.

As agent of destabilization of multiplane nuclei: page 4-2

As agent for reversing slant directions: page 2-37

As a possible source of "dark matter": page 1-33

As a possible source of gamma-ray bursts: page 1-33

Experimental determination of grain size: page 9-7


(see FIELDS)


Gravity is manifest as infinitesimal variations in the time-averaged ellipticity of ECEs in the space lattice. These distortions in the spherical shape of ECEs are proportional to the time-averaged shrinkage density at each point in the space lattice.


In QCD, particles comprised of quarks. In IPP, particles comprised of clusters of defect-pairs of two categories:

Mesons: in QCD, comprised of a quark-antiquark pair. In IPP, defect-pair clusters extending in one or two cardinal directions.
2-17, 18, 24, 25, 26, 27

Baryons: in QCD, comprised of three quarks. In IPP, defect-pair clusters extending in all three cardinal directions.
2-18, 19, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 34


IPP's explanation: pages 1-32




every defect "hovers" incessantly between adjacent lattice locations, even those which are "motionless" in absolute space; hovering is a byproduct of defect creation.
1-10, 11


A lattice-density oscillation bound to a hovering defect through a feedback process.
1-10, 19, 20


This has a special meaning in IPP: proximity of a proton and neutron can interact upon their charge-exchange cycles to increase their mutual attraction. When we examine these cycles, we see that every charge-exchange state has both mass and charge asymmetry, even though the T-slant form possesses tetrahedral symmetry. This asymmetry is simply due to the fact that, in T-slant nucleons, defect-pairs comprised of + c-void defects cannot have a common center of mass with orthogonal defect-pairs comprised of - c-void defects. Induced dipole effects create the fields that make proton/neutron "entity" exchanges possible. (see ENTITY EXCHANGES)


A convenient abbreviation of the more descriptive term, "point-centered oscillatory torroidal rotations of ECEs creating shrinkage-producing spheroidal lattice-density waves".
1-11, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21


Particles whose core defects are uncollapsed voids, out-of-place ECEs, or excess ECEs wedged into a supercube.
1-26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31




An ever-expanding dynamic lattice distortion pattern, centered upon a hovering, drifting lattice defect, or defect cluster.
1-9, 10


A term used to indicate that a particle structures exists in both matter and anti-matter forms. IPP infers that only charged particles have matter & anti-matter valences; it infers that neutral particles lack these valences.


A detectable lattice-density oscillation whose frequency is proportional to the amount of hemispherical shrinkage captured by a defect's hovering oscillator. It is the lower side-band of the frequency-modulation produced in the undetectable ultra-high frequency of the defect's spherical hovering oscillator by the presence of bound hemispherical shrinkage.
1-25, 26




Mass-times-velocity; IPP shows that this is equal to the bound hemispherical shrinkage component of a particle's ellipsoidal hovering LD oscillator.




A term given to the tendency of a relativistic muon-neutrino to deflect a proton during a close encounter. QCD interprets this as an exchange of a Z-boson. IPP attributes this phenomenon to the ability of a half-charge void to acquire sufficient mass to deflect the proton by collapsing momentarily in the ambience of undedicated shrinkage released during a p-1 charge-exchange state of the proton.


A cosmological concept, i.e. a grouping of three pairs of opposite-polarity "thermal" voids in an octrahedral arrangement of great stability, which can convert to a neutron when its center coincides with the center of collision of two oppositely-directed photons of sufficient energy to produce undedicated shrinkage in excess of 939.57 MeV.
8-5, 6



Because all of the nucleons in a planar nuclide have their centers in a common cardinal plane, and because there are three cardinal planes in the space lattice, we infer that planar nuclei of the same isotope will tend to exist in a multiplicity of orientations in space. IPP calls these possibilities, orientation isomers. Nuclides with perfect symmetry will have 3 orientation isomers; those with bilateral symmetry will have 6; asymmetrical ones, at least 12, perhaps, 24.


This is created by the fusion of hemispherical shrinkage to a spherical LD oscillator. The speed at which an LD oscillator's center moves through space is proportional to the amount of oscillator ellipticity.
1-5, 20; 7-14


The tendency of an oscillator, whose center is in motion through space, to maintain a linear trajectory, despite transient deflecting interactions. Its ability to recover hinges upon having so little of its mass-energy in its central region (its mass-energy is distributed in equal radial increments to infinity), and upon having all of its parts in intimate feedback relationships.


Lattice-density fluctuations at a photon's LD oscillator's center involve torsional rotations of opposite-polarity ECEs. These central rotations influence the directions of torsional rotations of the entire oscillator structure, so these central rotations are perpetuated endlessly, unless perturbed by external influences. The effect of this stabilized plane of central rotation is to create an alternating electric field whose strength is at a maximum at some angle in this plane of rotation, and zero along its axis of rotation. This is the structure of a photon's polarization.


A cardinally-directed line that passes through the centers of two paired c-void defects.


An infinitely-extending dynamic distortion pattern in the space-lattice centered about a hovering defect, or defect-cluster.


The production of defects by rotation of ECEs past a "toggle" point at the center of a vigorous LD oscillation.


The total shrinkage captured by the particle's defect(s) and its(their) hovering oscillator(s).
1-9, 10


The "static", or spherical shrinkage component of a particle's hovering LD oscillator.
1-9, 10


An infinitely-expanding ellipsoidal lattice-density oscillation, whose center of maximum ECE density jumps through the space lattice at the speed of light. Photons are the only moving phenomena which utilize 100% hemispherical shrinkage.
1-7, 8


A charge-exchange will always alter the charge of each of the participating defect-pairs by e. However in neutral kaons, because of their symmetry, dual simultaneous charge-exchanges occur, changing each defect-pair's charge 2e, thereby interchanging the plus and minus axes of the particle.
2-17, 18


A void which wanders into a zone of undedicated shrinkage, and subsequently collapses into a c-void, whose center is midway between the prior location of this void and a face-diagonally adjacent ECE, which IPP terms, "the translocating ECE".


The fraction of the total mixture of elements that exist in pristine interstellar gases prior to their involvement in stellar formation. Can be estimated from absorption spectra.
8-7, 10


The phenomenon of current flow through a very thin reverse semiconductor junction, currently explained as due to Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle. IPP says this is due to the field-canceling effect of visiting + voids.


An increase in the wavelength of spectroscopic lines with distance to a stellar object, commonly ascribed to the expansion of the universe. IPP explains this as due to the loss of energy of photons when they (very rarely) interact with and ionize void-pairs, in their passage through interstellar space.
1-31; 8-8, 9


A lattice defect formed by removing an ECE from the lattice and replacing it with an opposite polarity ECE.

-- replacement: an electron
++ replacement: a positron
1-27; 7-14


A condition in the structures of five-plane nuclides in which all the strongly bonding nucleon locations are occupied.

Proton saturation: occurs when the outrigger protons in all three planes (#1, #3 & #5) form complete rectangular arrays.

Neutron saturation: occurs when all the strongly bonding interplane neutron locations (planes #2 & #4) are occupied.

Islands of stability: nuclides in which saturation occurs in both protons and neutrons have greatest abundance, or exhibit unusually long half-lives. An example: 90Th232.
4-12, 13, 21, 24


The splitting of a defect-pair cluster into two or more parts. IPP infers that increases in the bond spacings of paraxially-bonded, or diagonally bonded, defect-pairs in cluster will often lead to scission, because spacing increases may lead to smaller equilibrium defect-spacings of the bonded defect-pairs, releasing undedicated shrinkage which fuels separation momentum. Changes in nucleon bond spacings (in nuclei), on the other hand, do not lead to scission, because their defect-pairs are already at their equilibrium defect-spacings.
3-6; 6-16, 17, 18


Regions of the space lattice in which the ECE density is greater than the ECE density of "empty" space. Shrinkage correlates with mass-energy in IPP.

Geometric shrinkage: that portion of a particle's total mass-energy utilized in forming the ECE displacement pattern induced by its central defect (or defect-cluster).

Hemispherical shrinkage: an infinitely-expanding hemisphere of shrinkage which results from the progressive bisection of an infinitely expanding spherical lattice-density oscillation. The center of mass-energy of expanding hemispherical shrinkage moves through the lattice at the speed of light. IPP uses the concept of hemispherical shrinkage to explain photons, momentum, de Broglie matter-waves, magnetism, and other dynamic aspects of phenomena.
1-6, 26; 7-4, 5, 19

Mass shrinkage: that portion of a particle's total mass-energy utilized in creating the spherical component of a particle's hovering oscillator, and its spin.

Momentum shrinkage: that portion of a particle's total mass-energy utilized in forming the hemispherical shrinkage component of the hovering oscillator (i.e. that portion creating its ellipticity).

Undedicated shrinkage: a transient lattice-density oscillation which results from the merging of two lattice-density oscillations of opposite asymmetry, or from the mutual annihilation of two particles. This oscillation represents mass-energy "up-for-grabs", which instantly converts into particles and/or momenta or photons.


The fact that mass-energy is conserved convinces us that shrinkage is primordial! Shrinkage exists throughout the universe as a formless potentiality, fixed in quantity, but ever-changing in its utilization and distribution! At any given moment, it is apportioned among an infinity of various static and dynamic structures, but these are in a constant state of flux. Being primordial, every bundle of shrinkage already stretches to infinity. Thus, any new phenomena utilizing this bundle of shrinkage draws its sustenance from the decaying residues of an infinite series of prior phenomena.

Although it is convenient and natural to think of defects and lattice-density oscillations as causing shrinkage, we see, rather, that these phenomena can occur only if the point-centered shrinkage necessary for their formation is already in their vicinity.
1-9; 7-11


A cubic crystalline form of the space lattice in which the polarity of ECEs alternates in all three cardinal directions. IPP's concept of "empty" space.


A term which has relevance only to "big bang" cosmology and to the "black-holes" of General Relativity. Since IPP postulates that ECEs are incompressible, and already in contact, we see that the notion of a singularity has no meaning in IPP. The greatest amount of compression possible for the universe would be when all the ECEs are in the body-centered cubic lattice form. This conversion would shrink the volume of the universe by only 23%.


A warp in the space lattice induced by the shrinkage associated with the presence of a center of matter or energy. Point-centered shrinkage results in radial contraction and circumferential compression, the former, increasing the spacing between concentric shells of like-polarity ECEs, the latter decreasing the spacing of ECEs within each shell.
1-16, Fig. 1-3


(Meaningful only in relation to two orthogonal defect-pairs). "Slant" is the face-diagonal direction assumed by the axis of expansion of a c-void, when viewed from the pair's center, with your two eyes parallel to the plane of the particle.

L-slant c-void: one whose axis of contraction slopes from upper-left to lower-right.
R-slant c-void: one whose axis of contraction slopes from upper-right to lower-left.


Geometric differences in otherwise similar hadron particles due to slant differences of their component c-voids.

A-slant kaons: a structure of two orthogonal defect-pairs in which the c-void slant directions alternate.

S-slant kaons: a structure of two orthogonal defect-pairs in which the c-void slants take the same direction. These can be further classified into L-slant kaons, and R-slant kaons.

T-slant nucleons: a structure of three mutually orthogonal defect-pairs in which the c-void slants form a slant "tetrahedron" (i.e. where each of the three orthogonal defect-pairings has an A-slant structure). T-slant nucleons can occur in two orientations of the slant tetrahedron. One can convert to the other by 90 rotation about any of the three cardinal axes of the space lattice, a possibility which requires a rare grain-boundary transition between two space crystals whereby all three cardinal axes rotate 45 degrees.

M-slant nucleons: a structure of three mutually orthogonal defect-pairs in which the c-void slants form a "mixed" pattern, i.e. where only one of the three orthogonal defect-pairings has an A-slant structure, while the other two have S-slant structures. IPP assumes that M-slant three-axis structures are kaon resonances.
2-7, Fig. 2-5


The direction of a particle's major axis, or of a certain state of its charge-exchange cycle, relative to the cardinal axes of space. At every state in a charge-exchange cycle, there are multiple possibilities for the direction of the next charge-exchange; also, any cycle of a particular orientation will continue to retrace the same charge-exchange pathways in the absence of external fields.


A detectable artifact in a defect's distortion pattern due to the continuous rotation of its center between two adjacent lattice locations, under the influence of its bound hovering oscillator.


A combination of a source capable of generating a beam of neutral atoms of one specific isotope of an element, which is directed centrally through a high-gradient magnetic field orthogonal to this beam. Atoms in different spin states suffer different degrees of deflection, allowing their detection.


Possessing S-slant "kaon" sub-components, i.e. they are "strange" because these particles differ from the normal T-slant nucleons, which have three A-slant "kaon" sub-components.


A supercube is a pattern you can learn to see (a gestalt) in the simple cubic lattice, which we define as "any cubical grouping of eight contiguous lattice cubes"

Minus supercube: a supercube which has - ECEs at its eight vertices, and a + ECE at its center.

Plus supercube: a supercube which has + ECEs at its eight vertices, and a - ECE at its center.


A catastrophic collapse, followed by colossal explosion-implosion of a massive star. IPP shows how the explosion's high neutron flux creates multiple-plane nuclei, with high n-to-p ratios, while the implosion forces the central ECEs into a body-centered cubic-lattice form (IPP's concept of a "black-hole").


Diagonal-bonds between adjacent nucleons are said to be "synchronized" when their six-state charge-exchange cycles relate so as to produce the largest number of favorable diagonal-bond alignments, and, hence, produce a "ground" state of the largest bond mass-deficit.
3-6, 7, 8


Squares in perspective in lattice-form diagrams of particles, containing a diagonal line of ECE symbols, whose function is to indicate the center locations, slants, and polarities of c-voids.


(IPP's alter-ego of QCD's tau lepton) a structure which bears a resemblence to the D, but the tau has a charged "core" with neutral "outriggers", whereas the D+ & D- have a neutral core & charged outriggers. We may speculate that it is this charged "core" which simulates the characteristics of a lepton, since the serial sequence of four central charge-exchanges creates a spin analogous to those of the electron and muon.
2-25, 26, 27


A transient spherical lattice density oscillation produced by the mass-energy (undedicated shrinkage) released by the annihilation of matter and/or the cancellation of energy or momentum. The center of this oscillation is nearly static, or moves slowly through the lattice. Above a certain energy threshold, this oscillation rotates central ECEs to produce pairs (or clusters) of defects, and separation momentum; below this threshold it splits into two photons.


Movement of a defect-pair through the lattice.

Cardinal translation: paired c-voids move 1 obliquely toward each other, then away, so that their center-of-mass moves in a straight line.

Diagonal translation: paired c-voids move 1 obliquely together, alternating diagonal directions; center-of-mass takes a zigzag path.


Movement of a defect's center from one location to another, by opposite movement of an ECE.

Translocating ECE: the particular ECE (of twelve face-diagonally adjacent to a void) which moves half the distance toward it during the void's collapse to a c-void.
See Hadron Tutorial

Translocating ECEs: opposite movement of opposite-polarity "chains" of ECEs. This action occurs in charge-exchanges, in void-pairs (electron-neutrinos), and in replacement defect (electron/positron) creations & annihilations, in neutrino induced decays of nuclear protons and neutrons, and in electron capture of nuclear protons.
See Hadron Tutorial


In unstable nuclei, typically one isotope of an element will have the longest half-life, while half-lives are progressively shorter for mass numbers below and above this isotope. However, in the region between Polonium, Z = 84, and Protoactinium, Z = 91, all these elements have two half-life peaks. IPP is able to give a structural explanation for this anomaly.




An IPP measurement in which 1 is equivalent to one ECE diameter. Lattice face-diagonals are known to be 1.414. This nomenclature is used nearly exclusively for defect-pair and bond spacings. Although somewhat impractical, it may also be used for concentric shell separations.


In five-plane nuclei, neutrons that site in the all-neutron planes (#2 & #4) are able to bond to planes #1, #3, & #5 only in dual proton U-notches. Here they can form attractive diagonal bonds to 2 protons, and a repulsive diagonal bond to the lone neutron of the U-notch, for a net of one diagonal bond to each plane above and below them. Orthogonal U-notches are not occupied, because they net a -1db bond.


A lattice defect created by a missing ECE.

+ void: a muon-neutrino
- void: a muon-anti-neutrino
1-28, 29


An electron-neutrino/anti-neutrino; a stable combination of + void & -void joined together in an oscillatory system. IPP argues that the void-pair system lacks matter/anti-matter valences.
1-29; 9-4