How IPP Explains Superfluidity of Helium 4

Webster's New World Dictionary defines superfluidity as:

"the phenomenon, exhibited by liquid helium at temperatures below 2.18° K, of flowing without friction and having very high thermal conductivity"

This definition falls far short of conveying the baffling nature of this ability of "flowing without friction". For example, when liquid helium above this critical temperature is poured into a beaker, which is then placed in a transparent container in a cryostat, and subsequently cooled below this critical temperature of 2.18 degrees kelvin, a wonderful phenomenon occurs: what one notices is that, in defiance of all common experience, the liquid helium appears to have "leaked" through the walls of the beaker, and has reached a common level inside and outside. If one seeks a more plausible explanation, one must assume that the liquid flows up the walls of the container, against gravity, over the beaker lip, down the outside walls, and into the bottom of the surrounding transparent container. In other words, the liquid film on the beaker walls behaves as if it were a siphon.

What could account for this? Perhaps, when helium atoms lose most of their thermal motions, they acquire the ability to form linear sheet-polymers of tremendous tenacity whose affinity for adjacent polymer sheets is essentially nil. One can picture these sheets as having indeterminate widths and lengths, but having group continuity able to stretch from the inner liquid level over the beaker lip to the outer liquid level. One might say that the property crucial to superfluidity is the complete lack of bonding between these polymer sheets and any materials they come in contact with, including each other. Let us see how IPP explains this non-bonding property.

IPP’s Concept of the Helium Nucleus

We will recall from our website Hadron Tutorial that:

IPP’s Concept of Helium’s Electron Orbitals

We will infer:

How These "Polymer Sheets" Move Around Corners

We will recall that the orientation of cardinal planes of the space lattice change each time a particle passes through a grain boundary. This suggests that sheet polymers will be constantly breaking up and reforming in different direction relative to the laboratory apparatus. Perhaps we should visualize a superfluid liquid as a sort of jumble of short pieces of non-stick noodles that constantly appear to twist and turn, as new components join to form new pieces in different directions. What links all these short pieces together, even though they have no tendency to bond to orthogonal sheets, is the tendency of their component atoms to form new sheets, with new partners, after each shift of the direction of their cardinal plane. This constant shifting and re-bonding makes each atom part of the total fabric of atoms, even though, at any instant of time, this fabric has no wide-scale integrity. The fabric can go around corners, because the bits and pieces can link in any direction, due to grain-boundary transits.