The Lattice Defects Of IPP's Particles
Infinite particles are centered upon lattice defects, or clusters of defects. These defects, created by the action of lattice-density oscillations fracturing neutral space, can take four forms, each with two polarities. These four fundamental particle building blocks are:
- ± void defects (± muon neutrinos, or, if paired, neutral electron neutrinos)
- ± excess defects (± muons)
- ± ± replacement defects (positrons, electrons)
- ± collapsed-void defects (c-voids) (when paired, cluster to form hadron particles)
Note the following about these forms:
- Each charge sign prefixed to the above defect types is equivalent to the ± 1/2e "charge" of a single ECE. The reason why single defects have this ± 1/2e "charge" is that single defects will cause a local region of the space lattice to have one more ECE of one polarity, than it does of the other polarity.
- Replacement-defects differ from the other three defects by having a charge of two ECE "charges". To understand why, imagine it being formed by removing an ECE of one polarity, and then filling the resulting void with an excess-defect of the opposite-polarity. Replacement defects usually form as electron/positron pairs, by energy rotating opposite-polarity ECEs into each other's sites.
- Void defects transform into collapsed-void defects only in lattice regions with high packing density of ECEs (locations in which mass-energy has been released through annihilations, or momentum cancellations). Single c-voids have only transient existence, since it would take infinite mass-energy to form one as a stable particle. Consequently, stable c-voids exist only as defect-pairs, where two c-voids have their defect centers spaced apart in cardinal lattice directions from each other, with their planes of symmetry parallel, and with their zones of expansion & contraction in opposition, so as to cancel most of their individual pattern distortion, as I showed graphically in Section 3, and explain in great detail in Chapter 2 of the online book.
- All hadron particles are comprised of clusters of c-void defect-pairs. The spacing between the two defect's centers varies from five to fifteen lattice units, depending upon the complexity of the cluster. The mass-energy of various spaced defect-pairs is very nearly proportional to the square of the defects spacing, and can be calculated quite accurately (The derivations of these equations is given in Chapter 2 of the online book). The numbers of defect-pairs in these clusters vary from one (in pions) to as high as sixteen (in upsilons). In mesons, the axes of the component defect pairs extend in one or two cardinal lattice directions, rarely in three, while, in baryons, they always extend in all three cardinal directions.
We perceive, then, that an infinite-particle theorist will be able to describe known hadron particles and resonances by the type, number, and arrangement of defect-pairs clustered at the particle's center, and arrive at an accurate calculation of a cluster's mass-energy. Thus, no extra "fundamental" particles are needed to describe known hadrons, or even to describe those yet to be discovered.
- Tau leptons are not represented in the above defect types. This is because IPP views the ±± tau as a meson, rather than a lepton. Suggested defect-pair structures, calculating to the precise mass of tau mesons, can be found among the meson structures available by clicking on the bulleted item, "Mesons", under VISUAL IMAGES on the Navigation Bar at left. IPP's rationale for classifying the tau as a meson is suggested in the headings of the tau drawings, and, is given in considerable detail, in Chapter 2 of the online book.
To pursue these particle ideas in greated depth, please click on any of the items under "Tutorials", or "Visual Images" on the navigation bar.
Introduction - Section 5: "How To Navigate Through IPP Territory"
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